What is economic cycle?

The economic cycle, also known as the business cycle or trade cycle, refers to the natural and recurring pattern of economic expansion and contraction that an economy experiences over time.

When considering the overall economy, its performance undoubtedly influences the stock market. A thriving economy typically results in a rising stock market, whereas during a recession, the stock market tends to suffer.

Understanding how the economy functions is of utmost importance since it has a lasting impact on the stock market over an extended period.

The economy operates in cycles, typically characterized by phases of expansion, peak, contraction, and trough.

The economy cannot experience continuous growth in a linear fashion; in other words, it cannot expand indefinitely without fluctuations, much like the prices of stocks. It is entirely normal and essential for the economy to undergo fluctuations, as this fluctuation is indicative of a healthy and balanced economic system.

Typically, when the economy is experiencing growth, we refer to it as an expansion phase. However, at some stage, it will reach a peak where growth levels off. Subsequently, a contraction phase follows, signifying a decline. Eventually, it reaches a trough, the bottommost point, and the cycle continues in this manner.

Let me make it clear.


During the expansion phase, the economy experiences a period of growth and increased economic activity. Key indicators, such as GDP, rise, and there is a general sense of optimism and confidence in the economy. Businesses thrive, leading to more job opportunities and higher consumer spending. This phase is often associated with low unemployment rates and increased investments.


The peak marks the highest point of economic activity during the expansion phase. It is the period when economic growth levels off and begins to slow down. While the economy is still expanding, it does so at a diminishing rate. At this stage, inflation may start to rise as demand increases and resources become more constrained.


Following the peak, the economy enters the contraction phase, characterized by a decline in economic activity. Key indicators, such as GDP and employment, start to fall, leading to reduced consumer spending and business investments. This phase is commonly referred to as a recession when the decline is more prolonged and severe.


The trough is the lowest point of the economic cycle. It is the bottommost phase of the contraction where economic activity reaches its minimum. At this stage, the economy has experienced a period of decline, and various economic indicators have bottomed out. However, the trough also marks the turning point from contraction to expansion.

After the trough, the economic cycle starts again with a new phase of expansion, and the cycle repeats itself. The duration of each phase can vary significantly and is influenced by various factors.

You will observe that a robust and sustainable growth pattern involves fluctuations, similar to the one demonstrated above. This is preferable because continuous upward growth without fluctuations can lead to a sudden crash, which is undesirable for the economy. For economic growth to be healthy and stable, it must progress at a reasonable pace. Rapid and excessive growth poses the risk of a potential crash, making it essential to maintain a balanced and steady growth trajectory.

What characterize a good economy?

A good economy is characterized by several key factors that indicate its health, stability, and overall well-being.

1. Steady economic growth

A good economy experiences consistent and sustainable economic growth over time. This growth is reflected in increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which measures the total value of goods and services produced within a country.

2. Low unemployment

A healthy economy aims to keep unemployment rates low. This indicates that a significant portion of the labor force is employed, which boosts consumer spending, tax revenue, and overall economic activity.

3. Price stability

A good economy maintains price stability, avoiding excessive inflation or deflation. Moderate and controlled inflation rates allow for predictable price increases and support overall economic stability.

4. Strong consumer spending

Robust consumer spending is a sign of a healthy economy. When consumers feel confident about their financial well-being and future prospects, they tend to spend more, driving demand and business growth.

5. Sound fiscal and monetary policies

Effective fiscal policies (government taxation and spending) and prudent monetary policies (central bank actions) are essential for maintaining economic stability and avoiding extreme fluctuations.

6. Stable financial markets

A good economy is characterized by stable and well-functioning financial markets. These markets facilitate the flow of capital and investments, supporting economic growth.

7. Trade balance

A good economy strives for a balanced trade, where exports and imports are well-matched. A positive trade balance indicates that a country is exporting more than it imports, contributing to economic growth.


When examining the entire economy, it’s essential to recognize the presence of an economic cycle. Growth is not a steady, linear progression; rather, it fluctuates, and we must navigate through its distinct phases. As traders, comprehending our position within this cycle becomes crucial, as it profoundly influences our trading and investment strategies, which will vary significantly depending on the current phase we find ourselves in.

To maintain control over the economy’s growth, countries implement measures aimed at managing its pace. When the economy is growing too rapidly, efforts are made to slow it down. Conversely, when it is declining, measures are taken to stimulate and revive it. This control is achieved through two primary instruments: monetary policies and fiscal policies.